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    The trade supplied by the American News
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Some of the Advertisements

(Click on Image Below to View a Larger and Clearer Version)

Planter

Plow

Plow

Type Writer

Printing Press

Sewing Machine




Some of the Articles


(see advertisement for the Sewing Machine)

    The New Remington No. 3 Sewing Machine received the highest and only award at the Cincinnatti Exposition, 1881, a medal being recommended; also award Atlanta Exposition and specially commended for possessing good qualities for family purposes, having the capacity for a wide range of work. The specimens of plain and ornamental work done on this machine received special mention and were the finest and most artistic on exhibition at the Atlanta Exposition.


(see advertisement for the Planter)

    The goods of the Remington Agricultural Co., received the highest award at Atlanta, a gold medal being recommended for the Globe Cotton Planter. These goods are sold in all parts of the United States and there is also a large and constantly increasing foreign demand. A new reversible plow, considered the best side hill and flat land plow made, is the latest improvement in agricultural implements introduced by this firm. For circulars, address Remington Agricultural Co., Ilion, N. Y.


The Close

     The Atlanta Exposition closed on Dec. 31st, with appropriate exercises. Speeches were made by Director General Kimball, Col. W. C. P. Breckenridge and Gov Colquit, the president of the exposition who, at 3:18P. M. gave the signal to close the exposition. The great bell tolled, when all the steam whistles, etc. on the grounds were at once sounded, a general hand shaking and interchange of congratulations began and preparations for packing up were immediately made.

     Was it a success? The large majority of visitors and exhibitors will unhesitatingly answer "yes". All were surprised by its magnitude and magnificence. It required a walk of eleven miles to see the eighteen hundred exhibits, which covered twenty-one acres of floor space. There were six miles of sewerage on the grounds and as many of steam pipes through the buildings.Many of the exhibits exceeded both in beauty and extent those of the same character of the Centennial. It is safe to say that no other exposition has there been such an absence of criticism toward the management and so little bickering among competitors, between, as a rule a feeling of good fellowship existed from the opening to the close. Director General and his co-workers are to be congratulated on the success which has attended their efforts.


FIREARMS

       At the Atlanta Exposition just closed, none of the judges were more critical and certainly none more competent than those from Group 18. Gen. W. S. Walker, a veteran of two wars; Capt Jos. F. Burke, commander of the celebrated Gate City Guard, the company which created so much interest in the occasion of its tour in the north a few years since; and Judge George Hillyer, the most prominent and successful amatuer hunter of Atlanta, constituted the judges of this group. Their examination of firearms was of the most careful and searching character, the Remington representative being required to take apart and reassemble a military gun without any appliances other than such as a green soldier might chance to have in his possession. That this was done with ease and rapidity reflects no credit whatever on the exhibitor, the simplicity of the arm rendering it as a light task, a fact fully acknowledged by the judges and appropriately set forth in their report. This exhibit has been the recipient of the highest compliments from all who have seen it and was, without doubt, the finest collection of firearms ever shown in the south, although gathered in haste and shipped on very few days notice from the armory in Ilion.

       A score of gold, silver and bronze medals; representing the highest awards at the principal world's expositions, occupied a prominent position among the arms in the elegant gun case, while the space was elegantly decorated with as many silk United States flags.

      Following is the Judges Report:
     Group 18, class 120.

     We find that the military rifles, magazine guns and pistols made by Messrs. E. Remington & Sons, of Ilion, New York, combine simplicity, thereby making these arms answer in every particular the purposes for which they are intended, and superior to other arms of like character.

    We recommend that the highest award be given to this firm.

W. S. Walker,
Geo. Hillyer,
J. F. Burke,
Judges.

    Approved:
        H. I. Kimball, Director General.
            J. R. Lewis, Secretary pro tem.
    Group 18, Class 123.

    We find that the sporting rifles and shotguns made y Messrs. E. Remington & Sons, Ilion, N. Y. excel in durability, safety and superiot finish, and we commend the Hepburn patent breech for its simplicity, neatness and absolute sadety. We recommend that the highest award be given to this firm for the manufacture of firearms of this character.

    We further commend this firm for special recognition by the Director General and Executive Committee for their handsome and costly display of arms, etc., the skillful arrangement of which makes thier exhibit one of the most attractive features of the exposition. A gold medal is recommended.

W. S. Walker,
Geo. Hillyer,
J. F. Burke,

Judges.
    Approved:
        H. I. Kimball, Diretor General
            J. R. Lewis, Secretary, pro tem.


The Southern Rifle Tournament

    The series of matches lately held at Atlanta, Ga., under the auspices of the Gate City Guard began on Monday, the 19th, and lasted five days. The attendance, while not what had been hoped for, included some very fine marksmen and the shooting was generally good. Colonel W. H. S. Burguyn of Baltimore, Lieut. A. H. Weston, Assistant Secretary N. R. A., Capt. S. A. Day, U. S. A., Lieut J. E. Bloom, Cincinnatti, O., Mr. George J. Stilson, Rochester, N. Y., Messrs. L. L. Hepburn, F Armstrong, R Winegar, F. W. Partis, G. F. Ferris, and H. S. Quackenbush from Ilion, N. Y., were among the visiting riflemen.

    We regret not being able to give a detailed account of the match, which was shot under some difficulties, the weather being somewhat inauspicious. The Piedmont Range will now be a permanent institution, and arrangements are already in progress looking to a grand tournament during the coming season. Elsewhere we publish articles relative to the matches, giving the views held at Atlanta regarding them and their future effect on the south. That this will be to popularize and firmly establish target shooting is the form belief in Atlanta.

    In the evening of the last day a reception and complimentary drill was tendered to the visitors by the Gate City Giard at their armory. After the drill, which was heartily applauded by the riflemen present, the prizes were awarded, appropriate speeches being made by Capt. Burke, Col. W. H. S. Burguyn, General W. S. Walker and others. The company then fell into line and escorted their guests to the Kimball House, where the final good-byes were regretfully spoken.


A Compliment Well Bestowed

    All visitors to the Director General's office will remember the Type-Writer so deftly managed by the expert lady operator who had entire charge of the voluminous correspondence of this office. On the closing day, General Kimball took occasion to testify to the good qualities of the wonderful little machine which has, in reality, accomplisahed more than any other piece of mechanism in the whole exposition.

INTERNATIONAL COTTON EXPOSITION.
OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL,
Atlanta, Ga., December 31, 1881

To whom it may concern:

    I take pleasure in certifying that the Typewriter upon which this letter was written, manufactured by Messrs. E. Remington & Sons, of Ilion, New York, has been in constant use in my office for the past four months. It has been operated by an expert. who has, I think, without doubt, accomplished by its use work that would have otherwise required the services of at least three clerks. It has not been out of repair or given the slightest trouble. I therefore commend it to the use of any person doing a large correspondence.

Respectfully,
H. I. Kimball
Inspector General

(Report on Awards)
REMINGTON TYPEWRITER

    A very ingenious and perfect machine, a substitute for the pen, very simple, compact, and of easy manipulation. We recommend the highest award.

J. L. Jones
A. C. Bruce
John Moser
Judges

    J. R. Lewis, Secretary pro tem
        H. I. Kimball, Inspector General


The End of the Tournament
------------------
Long Range Tournament Inaugurated in Atlanta

       How many citizens whose early days have been spent on the plantations of Georgia, can recall the time when they have shouldered their long barrelled rifles, filled their pockets with round bullets, and their homely cowhorns with powder, and wended their way to the designated crossroads to meet their neighbors, and have a shoot for beef? What a world of incident this sport brings to mind, and what a cloud of doubts, hopes and anxieties clustered around the rude paper target, with its black cross marks, as each "shooter" in turn advanced to his place, and prostrating himself on the ground, rested his trusty rifle on a stump of convenient height, set his hair trigger, and with many doubts took "dead aim" at the cross about 60 yards distance. How careful each shot was scrutinized and measured from the center, and how eagerly were the unfortunate ones to explain why they made a bad shot, always remembering the cause after the shot was fired, but never before it was too late to recall it. It seemed like sacrilege to interrupt this old pastime by scientific marksmanship, which intrudes its improved appliances that enable a rifleman to calculate with wonderful certainty the force of the wind that carries a bullet wide of its mark and directs him how to provide against it. How many persons are there in this city who believe that any one of the riflemen who were here last week could stand on the top of cuty hall and shoot a man standing on the top of the Atlanta Cotton factory? Yet that would be easier to do than to strike a "bulls eye" nearly three-quarters of a mile away on the rifle range.

       The tournament last week occupied five days, and was of the most enjoyable contests of that kind that ever occurred. Riflemen from cities in the north and east began to arrive on Sunday week, and the first match was called the following morning at 11 o'clock. There were seventeen matches in all, some of them at 200 yards, being the shortest range, and others at 500 and 1,000 distance. The great interest centered in the 1,000 yard matches, because the distance was so great that the best judgement and skill of each rifleman was brought to bear in calculating elevation, force of wind and other important considerations before each shot was fired.

       During three days of the tournament the wind was very strong and irregular, what is know at Creedmoor as "puffy", a difficult wind to calculate, particularly so to those who had never shot at long range. It was in contemplation to form a team of four from our Atlanta riflemen, provided that the range could be prepared in time to get at least a week's practice before the tournament began, but owing to accidents and delays in obtaining the ground, building the targets and erecting them, it was found impossible to practice in time, and the formation of an Atlanta team could not be accomplished. It was not until the riflemen had reached the range to begin the tournament that the targets were placed in position, consequently the only practice any of the riflemen obtained was in "pool shots" before each match began.

       The tournament was conducted according to the rules of the National Rifle Association , and Lieut. A. H. Weston, the treasurer of that organization came from New York to advise with Mr. Geo. E. Moser, of the Gate City Guard, who was appointed by Capt. Burke to act as executive officer, the intricate duties of which position he filled with great credit to himself and entire satisfaction to those who entered the contests. The whole affair was under the management of the Gate City Guard, and that public spirited organization have in this enterprise again demonstrated the determination and progress that characterized all their undertakings.

       The best marksmanship was displayed by the team from Ilion, N. Y. rifle club, under command of Mr. Hepburn, captain of the team, and who is well known among riflemen. One of the Ilion team opened the long range contest on Tuesday last, Mr. Hepburn at the telescope. As soon as the first shot was fired, and before the disc appeared at the target to mark the shot, Mr. Hepburn called out,

"A FIVE O'CLOCK BULL!"

       This was a new phraseology to the uninitiated, but as the shooting progresses, all soon learned where to locate each shot, by such phrases as 'three o'clock center", six o'clock inner" and so on, likening each target to the face of a clock.The range is pleasantly located about ten miles from Atlanta on the Air Line railroad, and the line of eleven targets can be seen from the cars. It is said that the range will be permanent, and next August it is proposed to have contest between the teams of Ireland, England and America for an International trophy. The handsome silver vase presented by Tiffany & Co., New York, goes to Ilion, having been won by that team. The beautiful trophy presented by the American Watch Co., of Waltham, Mass., was won by Capt. J. F. Burke, who made a remarkable score at 1,000 yards for one who is a novice at long range shooting. It could not have fallen to a more estimable and accomplished gentleman than Capt. Joe Burke,as he is familiarly called, and his friends rejoice in his success. The Howe Scale Co. prize was won by Col. W. H. S. Burguyn, president of the Maryland rifle club. The handsome diamond badge presented by the E. Jaccard Jewelry Company, of St. Louis, was won by Mr. W. L. Haynie, of the Gate City Guard, at short range. This badge will have to be contended for until one member shall have won it three times, when it will become his property. The other prizes were won by riflemen from different cities, and were awarded at the armory of the Gate City Guard on the evening of the last day's contest.

       The visiting riflemen were there entertained by the Guard in their usual social and hospitable manner. Before leaving the meeting the visitors held a meeting and passed resolutions complimentary to Capt. Burke and the members of his command for their admirable management of the tournament, nor did they forget Lieut. Weston, Mr. A. Pope, Maj. William J. Houston, and others who encouraged and materially aided in establishing the Piedmont Rifle Range and assisted in the inauguration of long range rifle shooting in the south. Below are listed many of those who contributed prizes; E. Remington & Sons, NewYork; W. T. Blackwell & Company, North Carolina; Perry & Company, Albany, N. Y.; Willimantie Thread Company, Connecticut; Whitney Company, Connecticut; Cheney Brothers, Hartford, Connecticut; Hamill & Co., Baltimore; Adams and Westlake Manufacturing Company, Chicago, Ill.; Wheeler and Wilson Manufacturing Company; gold medals by the Executive Committee of the Cotton Exhibition.

       With the exception of one muzzle loading rifle, all the rifles used were breech loaders and all the winners shot Remington rifles, with one exception. The position of the marksmen while shooting long range was lying on the ground, with feet to the target, though the position of the feet and hands varied according to the habit of each rifleman. A fund of experience in rifle shooting was gained by this tournament, which will result in a permanent organization in this city.--Atlanta (Ga.) Post Appeal


The International Military Match

    The proposed abolition of the "back" position at short ranges by the National Rifle Association is a step that will be hailed with satisfaction. No one has ever seriously imagined that our Volunteers, in the vague prospects of a brush with an enemy, would, at 200, 500, or even 600 yards, be able to lie down on their backs and take deliberate aim; and the impossibility is rendered even greater by the fact that the field equipment would render such a position entirely uncomfortable, not to say impossible, No one questions that the position favored the strings of bull's-eyes which have been marked characteristics of recent Wimbledon meetings, but that is all that can be said for it. It is utterly useless for "military firing", and we are therefor glad to to note that the Council of the Association has resolved to discontinue it. We think that they might with advantage have gone further, and made shooting at 200 yards standing, instead of kneeling. Our American cousins have some good "ideas" about this. According to a very interesting letter which was read at the annual dinner of the useful and popular North London Rifle Club, on Wednesday night, General Wingate of the United States, writing on the subject of the proposed "military" match between Great Britain and America, said that, "Our people here pay great attention to firing standing, and use no other positions at 200 yards, the idea being that it is essential to know how to shoot off hand and that a man who learns how to fire lying at the longer range, can do so at 200 yards when required. At all events, an American team would object greatly to firing at that distance except from the shoulder. As to the prone or back position, at 500 yards and upwards, there would be no practical difficulty about the matter, although most of us shoot in the prone position at those distances." General Wainingate, in the same letter. tells us something about the American small-arms. "New York National Guardsmen are armed with the Remington, which is very much like a the Snider ; Michigan and some others have the Sharp's Boachart; others the Springfield, the Army gun. Nearly all have a wind-gauge, our Ordnance Board having seen fit to issue a sight to the Army, a course which I am free to say is contrary to my judgement." ---Army and Navy Gazette


The Rifle Tournament

    The rifle tournament, which closed yesterday, inaugurates what will develop into a most interesting line of entertainments for the south--a series of long range rifle matches. These tournaments will be a source of much pleasure, not only to those immediately interested, but to the general public as well. For instance, the tournament which has been arranged for next August and which will be a contest between European and American riflemen. The tournament just closed has been highly satisfactory. Great credit is due Messrs. E. Remington & Sons and their representative at the exposition for aiding so greatly in making the tournament a success. The Remington guns took the lead in winning matches, and the Remingtons gave away five hundred dollars in prizes. Their guns are said by experts to be the safest, simplest, most effective, accurate and durable guns made. They have a world-wide reputation.---Atlanta Constitution, Dec. 25.


Modern Rifle Shooting

Long range rifle shooting may now be considered an established institution in this country; although it is only a few years since it was introduced here from England. its birthplace, yet so zealously have the people taken to it that they not only excel their former instructors, but they can also teach them many things about the art which they never dreamt of.

Few persons except ordnance and engineer officers and expert riflemen really comprehend what wonderful judgement, steadiness. and accuracy of aim are required to plant thirty-seven bullets out of forty-five within an area of thirty-six inches, at ranges of 800, 900 and 1,000 yards, and place all within an area of fifty-four inches; but a little study will prove what a remarkable feat it is.

A thousand yards, for instance, is 120 yards over half a mile. Now, a man looks insignificant at that distance, and the idea of potting him with a rifle would seem an absurdity to many persons. Yet most of our best marksmen might be depended upon to "bag" him occasionally, and they would be almost sure of hitting him every time at five or six hundred yards in anything like fine weather. Even a battalion of soldiers armed with modern weapons of warfare could plant their bullets within the area of an ordinary room at a thousand yards; and as they could fire a hundred rounds in ten or fifteen minutes, they would, of course, be able to decimate any body of men that might attempt to charge them, long before the assailants could reach them.

This wild style of firing cannot, however, be compared for a moment to long-range shooting, which might be called a scientific art, as its devotees have to expend much of their time and thought in studying and practicing it, and must not only keep in good health, but also deprive themselves of many luxuries which other men in their position in life would not do without. Prudence, perseverance, temperance, observation, and self-denial are the first requisites for a good marksman; and when he possesses these, and can hold the spirit-level of his front sight as steady and even as if the rifle were fast in a vise, he may be depended upon to get on the bull's-eye quite frequently at a thousand yards, provided he is blessed with good eyesight and is not nervous. The latter malady is generally of only short duration, however; for the quietude, caution, and coolness which a man must exercise in practice or in shooting a match will soon give him a steadiness which no other exercise that I know of can. Most persons who have come in contact with the best riflemen in this country and Great Britain must have noticed how very placid they are in movements and conversation, even at the most exciting moments, and how philosophically they bear defeat when fortune is against them, or victory, when she favors them.

Another interesting point about them is, that not one of them has black or brown eyes; blue, gray, hazel, and even green being the prevailing colors. It is said that no black or brown eyed man can become a good long-range shot, as his sight is not keen enough to enable him to discern objects plainly in a distance. Those who have deep-set eyes are said to be sharper in vision than those who have full ones, simply because they can concentrate their sight more, and therefore see further and more distinctly; but the others command a larger range of objects.

Strength of body has also something to do with success at the butts, for a strong man can bear the recoil of a gun carrying a heavy charge of powder better than a weak one, and therefore does not break down so soon; and as the precision of the bullet largely depends on the quantity of powder used, it follows that the larger the charge, provided it can be burned to advantage, the better the shooting, and the sturdier the man the more certain he is of success, other things being equal. A tall man has also an advantage over a short one when shooting in a prone position, face downward, as his long arms give him a better leverage for holding his gun steady; but the latter often excels him when firing from the back position. It will, therefore, be seen that physique plays no unimportant part in making a first-class rifleman.

Having glanced at the preliminary points, let us now see what routine a man must follow to become a good long-range shot and fit to enter the International team. The first thing necessary to be done is to secure a rifle and become acquainted with its idiosyncrasies, for no two rifles shoot alike; hence he who may make a splendid score with a gun with which he is familiar, may make a miserable one with another to which he is a stranger. He must also learn the technicalities of shooting, and be able to explain all about lines of sight, lines of fire, point-blank ranges, and trajectories, so that he may thoroughly understand what he is doing.

In long-range shooting the trajectories are so high that the ball rises from thirty-five to forty feet in a thousand yards; and as no two rifles have the same trajectory, a person must be well acquainted with his weapon before he can use it to the best advantage. The flatter the trajectory is the better, as the ball goes to its destination in a straighter line, and having less atmospheric resistance to overcome, it is more likely to reach the bull's-eye. The flatness of the trajectory of the Express rifles, which shoot point blank to a distance of two or three hundred yards, is what gives them their superiority in the eyes of sportsmen, and makes them invaluable for killing large game. The flatness being obtained principally by a sharp twist in the rifling, and by using large charges of powder and comparatively light bullets, they are unfit for long-range shooting, as they cannot compete in accuracy with guns made specially for that purpose.

The Remington Creedmore rifle, which has won more victories than any other arm manufactured, has a length of barrel of thirty-four inches, five grooves and lands, and a twist of one and a half; the grooves are rather shallow compared to some military weapons, and the lands are broader. When the Irish team first visited the United States, the charge of powder used in the old Remington gun was ninety grains, while the bullet weighed 550 grains; but since Hepburn's improved breech block and level have been adopted, the charge has been increased to 105 grains. This gives much better results than the lesser quantity did, as it imparts a higher velocity to the bullet, and, as a consequence, increases its power of resistance to the atmosphere and insures greater accuracy. The bullet used is softer than that made by Rigby, it being composed of one part of tin to eleven parts of lead. This is supposed to suffer less from friction while passing through the rifle than the harder ball, and to be therefore more accurate; but some of the gunmakers of Europe entertained a different idea, and made the missles so adamantine that their violent passage through the barrel does not alter their shape in the least. They also think that hard bullets are less liable to "lead" the gun better than the soft; but they keep their outline better, and are truer in flight. Some of them - as, for instance, the Rigbys - make their bullets heavier than those used here, the average weight being, if I remember rightly, 600 grains.

Bullets in flight follow the peculiarities of the rifle. Thus a gun whose grooves twist to the right will drift a ball in that direction, just as a top is spun with a string wound to the right will go to the right, or to the left if wound to the left. This being a mechanical effect, it can be readily corrected after a little practice: for all a person has to do is to allow for the "drift" at the various distances.

The state of the atmosphere also affects the flight of the ball very much, and one sudden puff of wind may cause a man, or a team, to lose or win a match. The wind is, in fact, the most important element in deciding the fate of a contest; for unless a person watches it closely and corrects his elevations as it increases or decreases in force, or changes in direction, he is more likely to score "goose eggs" than bull's-eyes.

Several varieties of wind are known at Creedmore, and each is called after a particular hour of the day. Thus, a 12 o'clock wind is one which blows from the target toward the rifleman, and a 6 o'clock wind that which blows the opposite way. The latter is the worst of all, as it wafts the smoke down the range, and often conceals the targets from view for several moments at a time. As the riflemen dislike it very much, they try to finish their matches before it appears, especially if the day is very calm, as the smoke then hangs over the ground like a cloud of vapor.

The way in which winds are defined is to hold a watch in the hand in such a manner that the twelve o'clock mark points toward the targets, and then to call the changes to the right or left of that mark by certain names; as, a 1 o'clock, a 3 o'clock, or an 11 o'clock wind. The direction whence it blows can be learned in a moment by glancing at the miniature flags that float from the poles planted all the way up and down the range for the purpose of giving timely notice of any change; for it is nothing uncommon for Boreas to veer four points or more between two shots, and to increase or decrease a mile or two in velocity in as many minutes. To keep track of the force and direction of the wind is therefore an important part of a rifleman's work; for the least mistake on his wind gauge is liable to send the ball wide of the target, or, at the best, to score only an outer.

A wind that causes no small amount of annoyance is that which is designated as the "fish taily," on account of its rapidly shifting position from right to left, and vice versa. This may blow near the targets, yet not show any indications of its presence at the firing points, or the reverse; for its force and direction often vary very much at different portions of the range. In the matter of misses the wind again plays an important part; for if it blows down the range--that is, toward the targets--it often lifts the ball so much as to carry it half a mile or more beyond the butts; but if it blows from the opposite direction it may send the .................into the ground several hundred feet away from its intended destination.

The condition of the atmosphere, even when there is scarcely any wind, has also much to do with good shooting, as the balls fly higher, faster, and truer in warm, humid weather than in cold, the difference in the rise alone between summer and winter being at least ten or twelve feet in a thousand yards. Hence a marksman must use higher elevation in winter than in summer to reach the bull's-eye and sometimes a larger charge of powder in order to overcome the greater resistance of the air.

The reason why bullets fly lower and slower in cold than in warm weather is due, no doubt, to the condensation of the air; for if it is governed by the ordinary laws of nature philosophy, it is expanded by heat and contracted by cold, as all other bodies are. It therefore follows that the more frigid the weather is the denser the atmosphere is, and the greater resistance it offers to objects passing through it. The best days for making good scores are those which are moist and pleasantly warm, as the balls then meet little resistance, comparitively speaking, and as a consequence go direct to the target.

Hot days, when the sun shines brightly, are not conducive to high scores, as the sun produces mirages which cause the targets to look all sorts of shapes., and to appear higher or lower than they actually are. Even a passing cloud may distort the rifleman's line of sight so much that he is more likely to score a "magpie" than a bull's-eye, especially if the cloud is heavy and rather low, as that apparently lowers the center of the target.

When a marksman has learned how to overcome the difficulties placed in his way by wind and weather, the law of gravitation, and the pecularities of his rifle, his education may be considered complete; still, like students in every other sphere of knowledge, he can always learn something new, for we cannot suppose that everything apertaining to rifle shooting has yet been mastered. As an instance of this we may refer to the sights now in vogue. On most rifles the wind gauge is attached to the front sight, and when that is used in anything like a stiff breeze, or one which fluctuates much, it requires no small amount of time, judgement, and caution to change it to the proper degree; hence misses are frequent in a shifting wind, and a man who may make a splendid score at one range may break down badly at another. It would evidently be much better if the wind gauge was attached to the rear or Vernier sight as well as to the front, as it could be changed more rapidly, and the rifle, when pointed, would not look as though the party who was going to fire it intended to shoot several hundred yards to the right or to the left of the target. The advantage to be obtained from this combination is that the gauge can be graded quicker than by the present method, that the aim is more likely to be more accurate, and that the liability to fire at the wrong target is lessened. The Ilion (N. Y. ) team used this kind of a gauge at the last inter-state contest at Creedmoor, and as they won, it is safe to assume that the improvement in their rifle sights aided them to some extent. If they, for instance, had to change their gauge say, for example, ten degrees, they put six or seven degrees on the one attached to the rear sight, and the remainder on the one in front, so that they are able to keep both forward and back sight on nearly the same line. This method of affixing the wind gauge will probably be adopted by the majority of the rifle clubs in a comparatively short time, especially if its merits are made known.

The rear sight is now attached to the extreme end of the butt of the rifle, as the back position is the favorite one with the best marksmen. This enables them to fire more rapidly than they could in the old positions when the sight was placed near the barrel, and some distance from the eye. The elevation can also be corrected promptly, and with less trouble, and the eye is not strained so much in trying to take aim through the pin-head hole that forms the sight.

How necessary is it to be able to correct elevations readily may be inferred from the fact that the raising or depressing of the Vernier scale say five degrees, or the 5-100ths of an inch, makes a difference of four feet two inches at a thousand yards--enough to send a ball over or under a target. This alone would show what great judgement and experience persons must have in order to make the remarkable scores which have given Creedmore a world-wide fame.

The fact that the Americans have never been beaten is a good indication that they will not be, for they have always kept ahead of their rivals, and what would be called in Europe a phenominal score is not thought to be anything unusual here. It may be interesting at this point to show how rapidly our riflemen have advanced during the past few years, and compare their scores with those of their adversaries. That long-range rifle shooting was in its infancy here in 1874 may be inferred from the fact that no person thought of attempting to fire at the distance of 800 yards, and that Colonel Bodine's score at 500 yards was deemed a wonderful feat; yet that has been equaled recently at 1,000 yards. When the Irish issued their first challenge, no person in the country had any idea that our men could defeat the victors of Europe, yet the challenge was pluckily accepted by the Amateur Rifle Club with what result is already known to most people. The score they made in that contest was the best on record up to that time, but seems a very small one now, when teams of the National Guard, armed with military rifles, can excel it.

What a contrast there is between the average of 155 1-6 made by the American team of 1874, and the 215 1/3 placed to the credit of the champions of 1880, when they had to compete against Rigby's breech-loaders, which were said to be equal to the best turned out in the United States. In the great match of 1876 for the Palma, in which the Irish, Scotch, Australians, and Canadians took part, the Americans beat the Irish by 22 points, the Scotch by 63, the Australians by 64, and the Canadians by 203. The matches between the Victoria Rifles of Canada and the Amateur Rifle Club of New York have always been won by the latter.

The leading match between American riflemen is that waged for the Leech Cup at 800, 900, and 1,000 yards. This is open to all native born citizens of the United States and resident members of the Amateur Rifle Club regardless of nationality, but thus far it has been won only by native Americans, and their scores have not yet been equaled in the British Kingdom. This cup is held for a year by the winner, who is styled champion, and he receives in addition a gold medal worth $50, which remains his private property. This cup was won in 1875 by Col. John Bodine, with a score of 205; in 1876 by Col. H. A. Gildersleeve, with a score of 204; in 1877 by Major H. S. Jewell, with a score of 213; 1878 by Frank Hyde, with a score of 205; in 1879 by J. S. Summer, with a score of 215; in 1880 by T. Lamb, Jr., with a score of 218; in 1881 by Captain Leslie C. Bunce, with a score of 217. As long as our riflemen can run up such scores as these there is little danger of the Palma crossing the Atlantic; yet every lover of the rifle must wish that the best men may win, even if the trophy should seek a change of air for a time.---J. Mortimer Murphy In The Gentlemen's Monthly.

 



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